Progress of Programs

Amphibian Ark has been helping zoos, aquariums and other ex situ (captive) facilities to address the captive components of the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, to save as many species as possible. For the past few years we have monitored and documented the great progress of ex situ amphibian rescue programs around the world. The progress of these programs includes a series of key steps in the progression of successful amphibian conservation programs. The programs that we monitor include those assessed during an Amphibian Conservation Needs Assessment as needing urgent ex situ rescue or research, and similar programs in countries where an AArk conservation needs assessment has not yet been carried out. The results of all conservation need assessments can be viewed on the Assessment Results page of our web site.

The programs in this list show a significant achievement by the ex situ amphibian conservation community towards reducing declining amphibian populations. By documenting this progress we are showing that zoos, aquariums and other ex situ facilities are making a vital conservation contribution towards reducing the loss of amphibian species, and for our community to be broadly acknowledged as a credible conservation partner. We have recently started to include species assessed as requiring ex situ research for conservation purposes, such as analog species from which we can develop husbandry protocols for more threatened related species.

Where possible, all amphibian programs that will ultimately result in reintroduction or translocation programs should be operated within the native range of the species. Maintaining these populations within the range country generally results in lower disease risks than programs that are located outside the native range of the species. This helps to reduce the risks of introducing non‐native pathogens into the environment around the facility holding the amphibians, and the possibility of introducing novel local pathogens to amphibians that are collected and housed outside of the range country.

Amphibian conservation programs that meet AArk’s definition of a “model program”, i.e. the program is based within the range country; and the population being managed is housed in isolation from other populations occurring outside its range, can be viewed on our Model Programs web page.

The following list includes all programs that are currently being monitored by the Amphibian Ark. Definitions for the table headings and categories are provided below the table. Click the species names to view full details for each program. Some of the columns can be filtered or sorted by clicking on the column headings. For a wider range of filtering options, the same data can be viewed on our data portal, where there are links to quickly filter by program category, species or country.

Species Category Country Institution Start Phylogeny Range Isolated Offspring F2 Releases
Ambystoma cingulatum Rescue (CNAW) United States Riverbanks Zoo 2010
Ambystoma laterale Supplementation (Other) United States Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo 2010
Anaxyrus baxteri Ark (CNAW) United States AZA institutions 1994
Anaxyrus houstonensis Rescue (CNAW) United States Houston Zoo 2007
Anotheca spinosa Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2006
Atelopus certus Rescue (CNAW) Panama Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project 2005
Atelopus exiguus Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 2005
Atelopus glyphus Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2005
Atelopus limosus (Lowland) Rescue (CNAW) Panama Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project 2009
Atelopus nanay Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 2005
Atelopus palmatus Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Atelopus varius Rescue (CNAW) United States AZA institutions 2001
Atelopus varius Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2006
Atelopus wampukrum Rescue (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Atelopus wampukrum Rescue (Other) Ecuador Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 2005
Atelopus wampukrum Rescue (Other) Ecuador Zoo Amaru 2005
Atelopus zeteki Rescue (CNAW) United States AZA institutions 2001
Atelopus zeteki Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2005
Calotriton arnoldi Rescue (Other) Spain Departament Agricultura, Ramaderia, Pesca, Alimentación i Medi Natural 2007
Cochranella euknemos Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2006
Craugastor punctariolus Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2006
Craugastor tabasarae Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2006
Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi Ex situ research (CNAW) United States AZA institutions 2003
Echinotriton andersoni Ex situ research (Other) United States AZA institutions 1997
Echinotriton chinhaiensis Ex situ research (Other) China Chengdu Institute 1999
Ecnomiohyla miliaria Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2006
Eleutherodactylus caribe Rescue (CNAW) United States Philadelphia Zoo 2010
Epipedobates anthonyi Rescue (Other) Ecuador Zoo Amaru 2005
Eurycea rathbuni Ex situ research (CNAW) United States AZA institutions 2009
Gastrotheca cornuta Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2005
Andrias japonicus Ex situ research (CNAW) Japan Asa Zoo 1971
Gastrotheca litonedis Rescue (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Gastrotheca litonedis Rescue (Other) Ecuador Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 2005
Gastrotheca litonedis Rescue (Other) Ecuador Zoo Amaru 2005
Gastrotheca orophylax Rescue (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Gastrotheca plumbea Rescue (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2012
Gastrotheca pseustes Rescue (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Atelopus nanay Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Gastrotheca pseustes Rescue (Other) Ecuador Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 2005
Gastrotheca pseustes Rescue (Other) Ecuador Zoo Amaru 2005
Atelopus coynei Rescue (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2012
Atelopus elegans Ex situ research (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Atelopus spumarius Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Centrolene buckleyi Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2012
Anotheca spinosa Rescue (CNAW) United States Atlanta Botanical Garden 2005
Gastrotheca riobambae Ex situ research (CNAW) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Gastrotheca riobambae Ex situ research (CNAW) Ecuador Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 2003
Gastrotheca testudinea Rescue (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2012
Geocrinia vitellina Supplementation (Other) Australia Perth Zoo 2006
Hemiphractus fasciatus Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2005
Hyalinobatrachium vireovittatum Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2006
Hylomantis lemur Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2005
Hylomantis lemur Rescue (CNAW) United Kingdom Manchester Museum 2001
Hyloscirtus colymba Rescue (CNAW) Panama Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project 2005
Hyloscirtus pantostictus Ex situ research (CNAW) Ecuador Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 2005
Hyloscirtus princecharlesi Rescue (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Hyloxalus jacobuspetersi Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2012
Hyperolius pickersgilli Rescue (CNAW) South Africa Johannesburg Zoo 2012
Incilius cristatus Rescue (CNAW) Mexico Africam Safari 2008
Leiopelma archeyi Rescue (Other) New Zealand Auckland Zoo 2003
Leiopelma hochstetteri Rescue (Other) New Zealand Hamilton Zoo 2006
Leptodactylus fallax Rescue (CNAW) Netherlands EAZA institutions 1999
Lithobates sevosus Rescue (CNAW) United States AZA institutions 2001
Lithobates vibicarius Rescue (CNAW) United Kingdom Chester Zoo 2005
Litoria aurea Supplementation (Other) Australia Taronga Zoo 1995
Litoria booroolongensis Supplementation (Other) Australia Taronga Zoo 2007
Litoria castanea Rescue (Other) Australia Taronga Zoo 2010
Litoria spenceri Supplementation (Other) Australia ZAA institutions 2003
Megophrys nasuta Rescue (CNAW) Singapore Singapore Zoo 2005
Nectophrynoides asperginis Rescue (Other) United States AZA institutions 2000
Nelsonophryne aequatorialis Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Nelsonophryne aequatorialis Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Zoo Amaru 2005
Neurergus microspilotus Rescue (CNAW) Iran, Islamic Republic of Razi University 2009
Pelophylax porosus brevipoda Ex situ research (CNAW) Japan Asa Zoo 2005
Peltophryne lemur Rescue (CNAW) United States AZA institutions 1980
Peltophryne longinasus Rescue (CNAW) Cuba Luis Díaz 2005
Philoria frosti Rescue (Other) Australia Melbourne Zoo 2011
Phyllobates terribilis Ex situ research (CNAW) Colombia Parque Zoológico Santa Fe 2012
Pristimantis museosus Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2006
Pseudepidalea viridis Supplementation (Other) Sweden Nordens Ark 2002
Pseudophryne pengilleyi Rescue (Other) Australia ZAA institutions 2003
Rana muscosa Ex situ research (CNAW) United States Los Angeles Zoo 2010
Rana pretiosa Supplementation (Other) Canada Vancouver Aquarium 2010
Rhinoderma darwinii Ex situ research (CNAW) Chile Universidad de Concepción 2009
Sachatamia ilex Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2005
Phyllobates terribilis Ex situ research (CNAW) Colombia Fundación Zoológica de Cali - CREA 2006
Sechellophryne pipilodryas Ex situ research (Other) Seychelles Nature Protection Trust of Seychelles 2008
Silverstoneia nubicola Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2006
Sooglossus sechellensis Ex situ research (Other) Seychelles Nature Protection Trust of Seychelles 2008
Sooglossus thomasseti Ex situ research (Other) Seychelles Nature Protection Trust of Seychelles 2008
Mantella aurantiaca Rescue (CNAW) Madagascar Association Mitsinjo 2012
Geocrinia alba Supplementation (Other) Australia Perth Zoo 2008
Strabomantis bufoniformis Rescue (CNAW) Panama El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center 2006
Taudactylus liemi Rescue (Other) Australia Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary 2011
Hylarana taipehensis Rescue (Other) Taiwan, Province of China Taipei Zoo 2011
Rana pretiosa Supplementation (Other) United States Woodland Park Zoo 2007
Hylomantis lemur Rescue (CNAW) United States Atlanta Botanical Garden 2005
Lithobates capito Ex situ research (CNAW) United States Atlanta Botanical Garden 2006
Hyloxalus jacobuspetersi Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 2005
Scinax alcatraz Rescue (CNAW) Brazil Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo 2011
Xenopus longipes Rescue (Other) Netherlands EAZA institutions 2008
Alytes dickhilleni Ex situ research (CNAW) Spain ZooBotànico Jerez 2010
Alytes muletensis Rescue (CNAW) Netherlands EAZA institutions 1985
Rana muscosa Ex situ research (CNAW) United States San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research 2005
Pseudophryne corroboree Rescue (Other) Australia ZAA institutions 2002
Neurergus kaiseri Rescue (CNAW) Sweden Parken Zoo 2003
Gastrotheca sp. Not yet assessed (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Atelopus sp. nov (Cordillera del condor) Rescue (Other) Ecuador Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 2005
Hyloscirtus sp. nov. Not yet assessed (Other) Ecuador Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 2005
Leiopelma pakeka Rescue (Other) New Zealand Zealandia - Karori Sanctuary 2006
Agalychnis moreletii Ex situ research (Other) United Kingdom Chester Zoo 2005
Atelopus balios Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2011
Atelopus sp. (spumarius-pulcher complex) Rescue (Other) Ecuador Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios 2008
Telmatobius culeus Rescue (Other) Bolivia, Plurinational State of Museo de Historia Natural Alcide d'Orbigny 2008
Telmatobius hintoni Ex situ research (Other) Bolivia, Plurinational State of Museo de Historia Natural Alcide d'Orbigny 2006
Telmatobius simonsi Rescue (Other) Bolivia, Plurinational State of Museo de Historia Natural Alcide d'Orbigny 2011
Telmatobius yuracare Rescue (Other) Bolivia, Plurinational State of Museo de Historia Natural Alcide d'Orbigny 2003
Cochranella euknemos Rescue (CNAW) United States Atlanta Botanical Garden 2005
Eurycea wallacei Ex situ research (CNAW) United States Atlanta Botanical Garden 2012
Gastrotheca cornuta Rescue (CNAW) United States Atlanta Botanical Garden 2005
Strabomantis bufoniformis Rescue (CNAW) United States Atlanta Botanical Garden 2005
Atelopus nanay Rescue (CNAW) Ecuador Zoo Amaru 2005

Definitions

Species – Click these species name to view the complete information for each model program.

Category – the type of conservation program

  • Rescue (CNAW) – Designated as requiring rescue during a Conservation Needs Assessment Workshop. A species that is in imminent danger of extinction (locally or globally) and requires ex situ management, as part of an integrated program, to ensure its survival.
  • Rescue (Other) – Not designated as rescue during an assessment, but managed by national/local experts as such because no assessment has been completed.
  • Supplementation (CNAW) – Designated as requiring a supplementation program during a Conservation Needs Assessment Workshop. A species for which ex situ management benefits the wild population through breeding for release as part of the recommended conservation action.
  • Supplementation (Other) – Not designated as supplementation during a Conservation Needs Assessment Workshop, but managed by national/local experts as such because either (1) no assessment has been completed or (2) national/local experts wish to manage the species as a supplementation for other reasons, e.g. this is not uncommon where a species is not threatened globally but populations are struggling at the edges of the range. It is not a global priority assessment, but it is a very valid effort to keep common species common, particularly at the extremes of their distribution.
  • Ex situ research (CNAW) – Either recommended for some form of ex situ research (e.g. natural history, biochemical or genetic studies) at a Conservation Needs Assessment Workshop, or being used as an analog for a species recommended for rescue during an assessment.

Start – the year the conservation program began.

Phylogeny – a complete phylogenetic analysis of the species in the wild has been carried out, to understand the functional unit being conserved (i.e. species limits have been determined).

Range – most or all of the ex situ population is maintained in the range country.

Isolated – the ex situ population in housed in isolation from other populations occurring outside its range.

Offspring – the population has produced viable offspring.

F2 – first generation captive-bred animals have reproduced successfully.

Releases – captive-bred or captive-reared animals have been released to the wild