Progress of the Pseudepidalea viridis program
at Nordens Ark


Pseudepidalea viridis

Common Name(s)

Green Toad;Crapaud Vert;Sapo Verde

Region where program is based


Country where program is based


The authority that recommended this species for an ex situ program

Unknown (TBD)

Has a genetic analysis been performed on wild populations to define the target taxon, i.e., verify that single, viable Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESU's) that are managed as separate populations, are not confounded by cryptic species or polymorphisms?


Name of the institution managing the ex situ population

Nordens Ark

Year the program started


Is at least some portion of the captive population maintained in range country?


Are sufficient resources available to manage the ex situ population?


Are adequate numbers of skilled staff available with the appropriate ex situ amphibian experience?


Is sufficient space available for the required population size?


Additional Support required

Has a Taxon Management Coordinator for the ex situ population been appointed?


Taxon Management Coordinator

Claes Andrén of Nordens Ark

Has a Taxon Management Group or Recovery Team been established?

Has a Taxon Management Plan, Recovery Plan or Species Action Statement been written?


Web link to Taxon Management Plan

Have Husbandry Guidelines been written?


Web link to Husbandry Management Guidelines

Have any knowledge gaps in the species biology or in their interaction with potential threats been identified that could benefit from research using the ex situ population?


List of knowledge gaps

There is a need for testing why establishing of captive bred toads is so difficult. Compared to other threatened amphibian species we have been less successful in establishing viable populations. There seems to be difficulties that are not known to us.

Have founder needs been calculated using the AArk Amphibian Population Management Guidelines ?

Have sufficient potential founders been collected? ( AArk Amphibian Population Management Guidelines recommends a minimum of 20 pairs of found animals).


Is the ex situ population managed by nationals from the range country?


What tools are used to maximize retention of genetic diversity?


Has the population produced viable offspring?


Have the first generation captive-bred animals bred successfully?


Is the ex situ population housed in permanent isolation from other populations occurring outside its range?


Is work being supported to study and mitigate threats to the species in the wild, either by the institution or by a regional wildlife agency?


Have captive-bred or captive-reared animals been released into the wild?


If releases were undertaken, have disease screening protocols or veterinary health checks been conducted prior to releases to the wild?


Is follow-up work being carried out to monitor progress of the released animals?


Is the taxon again secure in the wild, even if it might still require some ongoing in situ management? i.e. has the need for a captive assurance population been obviated such that we can call this a successfully terminated captive rescue program?



2016: Changed contact to Alfred Lindskog - no responses from Claes. Additional resources are required for expansion of the project. Responsible conservation authorities welcome Nordens Arks work, but are not able to financially support it. Every year eggs from 20 different females are collected in the field and raised ex situ for re stocking in week populations before hibernation in late September as newly metamorphosed or later as semi adults. Captive-reared and released animals have bred in the wild. There is a continuous need for captive breeding and rearing animals for release in the wild, at least another three years.
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