Progress of the Peltophryne lemur program
at AZA institutions


Peltophryne lemur

Common Name(s)

Puerto Rican Crested Toad;Sapo Concho

Region where program is based

North America

Country where program is based

United States

The authority that recommended this species for an ex situ program

Conservation Needs Assessment Workshop

Has a genetic analysis been performed on wild populations to define the target taxon, i.e., verify that single, viable Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESU's) that are managed as separate populations, are not confounded by cryptic species or polymorphisms?


Name of the institution managing the ex situ population

AZA institutions

Year the program started


Is at least some portion of the captive population maintained in range country?


Are sufficient resources available to manage the ex situ population?


Are adequate numbers of skilled staff available with the appropriate ex situ amphibian experience?


Is sufficient space available for the required population size?


Additional Support required

Funding for In situ programs, research and habitat improvement/pond construction.

Has a Taxon Management Coordinator for the ex situ population been appointed?


Taxon Management Coordinator

Diane Barber of Fort Worth Zoo

Has a Taxon Management Group or Recovery Team been established?


Has a Taxon Management Plan, Recovery Plan or Species Action Statement been written?


Web link to Taxon Management Plan

Have Husbandry Guidelines been written?


Web link to Husbandry Management Guidelines

Have any knowledge gaps in the species biology or in their interaction with potential threats been identified that could benefit from research using the ex situ population?


List of knowledge gaps

Nutritional Requirements, Distribution, Natural History.

Have founder needs been calculated using the AArk Amphibian Population Management Guidelines ?


Have sufficient potential founders been collected? ( AArk Amphibian Population Management Guidelines recommends a minimum of 20 pairs of found animals).


Is the ex situ population managed by nationals from the range country?


What tools are used to maximize retention of genetic diversity?


Has the population produced viable offspring?


Have the first generation captive-bred animals bred successfully?


Is the ex situ population housed in permanent isolation from other populations occurring outside its range?

No -> Yes

Is work being supported to study and mitigate threats to the species in the wild, either by the institution or by a regional wildlife agency?


Have captive-bred or captive-reared animals been released into the wild?


If releases were undertaken, have disease screening protocols or veterinary health checks been conducted prior to releases to the wild?


Is follow-up work being carried out to monitor progress of the released animals?


Is the taxon again secure in the wild, even if it might still require some ongoing in situ management? i.e. has the need for a captive assurance population been obviated such that we can call this a successfully terminated captive rescue program?



2018: We collect up to 20 potential new founders every 4 years. We now manage this species as one population after genetic rescue attempts to maintain the northern population separately became counterintuitive to management from a resource perspective. Genetic analysis of remaining captive and wild populations were carefully considered and discussed by partners before managing as one single population. Eighteen institutions (Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Disney, Fort Worth, Jacksonville, Lowry Park, Miami, Nashville, North Carolina, Oakland, Omaha, Potter Park, Sedgwick County, San Antonio, Sunset, Toronto and Queens Zoos) participate in reintroduction efforts for the species and continue to reintroduce tadpoles at six locations in Puerto Rico within historic habitat, separate from the remaining wild population in Guanica Commonwealth Forest. The PRCT SSP works closely with USFWS and Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources in Puerto Rico to conduct research; improve and create new habitat; support outreach and educational activities; establish new populations; and protect the natural breeding population from threats such as introduced species, disease, altered habitat from human activities, and rising sea level. 2015: This year, eleven AZA-accredited zoos (Cleveland, Detroit, Fort Worth, Lowry Park, Nashville, Oakland, Omaha’s Henry Doorly, Potter Park, Queens, San Antonio, and Toronto) were able to send 69,596 zoo-hatched Puerto Rican Crested Toad tadpoles from North America to Puerto Rico for release at six different sites across the island. Partners in Puerto Rico observed natural breeding events of toads in El Tallonal and found adult toads returning to man-made ponds in La Esperanza and Manglillo, showing continued survivorship and reproductive success at our reintroduction sites. We currently manage two separate populations (northern and southern). We have maintain one two release sites in the north and two three in the south. We have seen documented reproduction and survivorship at all three of our older sites, and are continuing to secure three one additional release sites to complete recovery goals. We are able to pull a small number of potential founders from the wild population every three years to augment genetic diversity in the ex situ population.
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